2.3GHz 13cms Source and Analyser

The FARS team has developed another useful Amateur Radio Project! This unit is based on surplus  Bluetooth modules and provides a combined source, and level meter for the 13cm band. It can also  provide test signals via harmonics for both the 10GHz and the 24GHz amateur bands.

This innovative project came from the golden rule of Ham radio “what else can we use those for?” Following a failed commercial project, a quantity of high quality WT12 Bluetooth modules became available. With the help of a very talented embedded software engineer, the VCO, PLL, PA & RX on-board the silicon yielded to software control and this project was born.

This page is also available as a PDF here.

This innovative project took the Construction Competition title at the Scottish Microwave Roundtable (GMRT) November 2017.

Kevin G3AAF accepting the Award

Bluetooth technology exists in every mobile phone, laptops, cars, and many more consumer technology items. The first generation Bluetooth modules were quite large (25mm *15mm) but size has been reduced in more modern parts. Bluetooth (BT) operates in a band almost 80Mhz wide, between 2402Mhz and 2480Mhz which is divided into 1Mhz channels normally used on a Frequency hopping (Gaussian Frequency Shift keying) GFSK basis.

Three power classes are available, class 1 at 0dbm, class 2 at +6dbm, and class 3 at +20dbm. The BT module in this project is class 2 type and enables the project to offer a conducted power to the SMA port up to a maximum of +4dbm.

The project software is loaded by a pre-installed boot-loader into a Freescale micro-processor. This provides a number of functions, controlled by a single rotary encoder with push switch, with a simple-to-use menu structure which is displayed on a standard 1604 LCD display. The signal output can also be keyed with entry of the desired text being intuitively available by means of a “rotate and click” menu editor for each character.


Four menus are provided in software for storing user settings, regularly used functions, and the software version. The integral boot-loader allows for software updates to be downloaded, and programmed with a standard USB to TTL lead, removing the need for any PIC programming hardware.


A stable CW source is provided, tuneable from 2200 to 2755Mhz in 1Mhz steps with adjustable output level from ~+4dbm to -28dbm .

Note that outside of the BT band (2402 – 2480MHz) there is some deterioration of the flatness of the amplitude response -10dbm at the high end, and -22dbm at the low end.

Amplitude Response by Freq. 2200 – 2755MHz


A sweep function is provided with adjustable Start & Stop frequencies covering the range from 2200 to 2750 MHz. Dwell time is adjustable from 150ms – 5000ms. The sweep is performed in 1 MHz steps.

The output level is adjustable from +4dbm to -28dbm, and can also be adjusted in real time “on the fly”.


A modulation and CW keyer mode is available. Text up to 32 characters can be input via the rotary encoder, and stored in the Flash in the microprocessor. The text can then be keyed onto the chosen frequency.

The CW keyer is precisely timed with real-time adjustable WPM. An output pin is provided for an LED or sounder, and a configurable EXT pin option allows a Morse key to be used in place of the internal software routine.
PIN marked C18 on KP1 is the EXT key input pull low to TX
PIN marked C19 on KP1 is the TX Modulate output +3.3V high level current limit at 10mA with an  external resistor for driving an LED VCXO etc.


This is a receive function displaying an input power level. Measurement extends from the BT LNA noise floor at -96dbm to ~-50dbm 40db of dynamic range may be useful as an off air selective power meter. Measurement can be selected by the frequency control from 2200 to 2750 MHz in 1 MHz steps.

GMRT 2017 Construction Competition Entry

Applications in the Shack
Most surplus, low cost signal generators have an upper limit of 1Ghz. Even the relatively expensive Marconi 2024 stops at 2.4Ghz. Thus achieving continuous coverage of the 13cm band with generator & sweepers is difficult.  Surplus Sweepers (HP, Wiltron etc.) are great to own, but have multiple plug-ins taking a huge amount of bench space, power and time to keep them working to specification….

Having a small 13cm source is therefore very helpful and amateurs have devised many ad-hoc ways to provide similar functions. Examples are the 13cm Comb Generators by G0MRF, re-purposed “brick” oscillators, and simple diode multipliers from RF signal generators.

This module provides continuous coverage from 2200 to 2750Mhz in 1 Mhz steps and will thus be a useful addition even to a well equipped shack.

A marker on 10.368Ghz (the 4 th harmonic of 2592 Mhz) can be devised by adding a BAT 15-04 or similar diode directly to the SMA output. This will provide an easily portable, low level 10GHz signal when operating /P, as well as enabling confidence checks on your sensitive transverter, LNA, antenna and rig in the shack.

The 9th harmonic of 2672Mhz can similarly be useful as a low-level 24Ghz marker on 24.048GHz.  Stability in the transmit mode is respectable, considering the simplicity of the equipment. Typically a wander of +/- 250Hz is observed in the 13cm band (+/- 1KHz at 10GHz). The unit should be warmed up for about 20 minutes (and kept out of draughts!) to achieve its best stability.

The sweep function can be used in conjunction with a suitable Spectrum Analyser to view the response of a filter, or amplifier using the Max hold function.

Power supply requirements are 11-15V DC with a maximum demand of 70mA.
The power input is protected against reverse polarity & regulated down 7V for portable battery operation.
In transmit mode the module may be loaded into any output SWR without damage.
In receive mode the maximum permitted input level is +20dbm. The module may be damaged if this limit is exceeded.
It is not designed or intended to be used or replace a Local oscillator as the phase noise is not adequate, typically the Bluetooth phase noise specification <-80dbc/Hz @ 1Mhz offset,<-110dbc/Hz@2Mhz Offset & <-120dbc /Hz @3Mhz offset.

Spurious and Spurs TBC

Future Hardware /software enhancements ideas:

  • Divide By 2 for 23cm band
  • Multiply maths option in software
  • Beacon only option Keyer kit, no Bluetooth module
  • Software function to Auto flatten output power over frequency band

Current software Version V0.18